Indo-European Language Family
He published some conventional proposals and dictionaries on Astur-Leonese and Galician-Portuguese dialects. He studied the Licentiate degree in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Extremadura , and is currently resident in Orthopaedic Surgery. He obtained the MSc. Most of his professional career has been involved in the road sector in the Spanish Ministry of Fomento, where he works as a head of service. He has worked in Germany , France , Luxemburg , Belgium and Poland in the framework of different international programmes.
He also loves programming, especially in Fortran and Visualbasic. A Grammar of Modern Indo-European. It contains a comprehensive description of Proto-Indo-European grammar, and offers an analysis of the complexities of the prehistoric language and its reconstruction from its descendant languages. In the middle of the 1st millennium bce , Germanic tribes lived in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany.
Their expansions and migrations from the 2nd century bce onward are largely recorded in history.
- A Grammar of Modern Indo-European | Pronoun | Verb!
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- Proto-Indo-European language;
The oldest Germanic language of which much is known is the Gothic of the 4th century ce. Armenian , like Greek, is a single language.
Speakers of Armenian are recorded as being in what now constitutes eastern Turkey and Armenia as early as the 6th century bce , but the oldest Armenian texts date from the 5th century ce. The Tocharian languages , now extinct, were spoken in the Tarim Basin in present-day northwestern China during the 1st millennium ce.
A Grammar of Modern Indo-European – Academia Prisca
One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries. These languages became known to scholars only in the first decade of the 20th century. They have been less important for Indo-European studies than Hittite has been, partly because their testimony about the Indo-European parent language is obscured by 2, more years of change and partly because Tocharian testimony fits fairly well with that of the previously known non-Anatolian languages.
Celtic languages were spoken in the last centuries before the Common Era also called the Christian Era over a wide area of Europe, from Spain and Britain to the Balkans, with one group the Galatians even in Asia Minor. Very little of the Celtic of that time and the ensuing centuries has survived, and this branch is known almost entirely from the Insular Celtic languages— Irish , Welsh , and others—spoken in and near the British Isles , as recorded from the 8th century ce onward.
The grouping of Baltic and Slavic into a single branch is somewhat controversial, but the exclusively shared features outweigh the divergences. At the beginning of the Common Era, Baltic and Slavic tribes occupied a large area of eastern Europe, east of the Germanic tribes and north of the Iranians, including much of present-day Poland and the states of Belarus , Ukraine , and westernmost Russia.
The Slavic area was in all likelihood relatively small, perhaps centred in what is now southern Poland. But in the 5th century ce the Slavs began expanding in all directions.
‘Mother’ and ‘Father’ Are Surprisingly Similar Between Some Languages
By the end of the 20th century Slavic languages were spoken throughout much of eastern Europe and northern Asia. The Baltic-speaking area, however, contracted, and by the end of the 20th century Baltic languages were confined to Lithuania and Latvia. The earliest Slavic texts, written in a dialect called Old Church Slavonic , date from the 9th century ce , the oldest substantial material in Baltic dates to the end of the 14th century, and the oldest connected texts to the 16th century.
Albanian , the language of the present-day republic of Albania , is known from the 15th century ce.
It presumably continues one of the very poorly attested ancient Indo-European languages of the Balkan Peninsula , but which one is not clear. In addition to the principal branches just listed, there are several poorly documented extinct languages of which enough is known to be sure that they were Indo-European and that they did not belong in any of the groups enumerated above e.
Of a few, too little is known to be sure whether they were Indo-European or not. Indo-European languages. Article Media.
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