Pathological fractures of the mandible are also associated with PD, they occur due to alveolar bone resorption that significantly decreases its thickness, making it weak. These fractures are difficult to treat, because it is difficult to stabilize them, and also because of the very characteristics of the alveolar bone affected by the periodontal disease Hale, ; Legendre, Besides the damages it causes to oral health, PD is also relevant for systemic influences, relating to several diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight, renal and pancreatic cancer.
Similarly, PD is indicated as critical in the occurrence of many infections, since it is the source of bacteria that cause diseases such as arthritis, pneumonia, encephalitis, endocarditis, and glomerulonephritis Cruz et al.
Comprehensive Small Animal Dentistry
The treatment for periodontal disease requires an initial procedure called periodontal prophylaxis, which includes the removal of plaque by scaling and root planing, tooth polishing and irrigating the gingival sulcus region with 0. Other procedures may be required for the removal of plaque in periodontal pockets that are deeper than 5mm and to attempt to regenerate periodontal defects Grove, ; Marreta, ; Niemic, Despite its significance, currently, the epidemiological data on the occurrence of PD are predominantly from the USA.
Only two studies conducted in Brazil have indicated the prevalence of The epidemiological survey form used was specially created to collect the necessary data by means of an interview. Each dog owner was asked why they were bringing their dog to the hospital, about their dog's dental history, the type of feed they used for their dog, and if they were aware of PD in dogs, and if they were, what they knew about it. Then, each animal was physically examined. The following parameters were assessed: asymmetric head, size of sub-mandibular lymph nodes, mucosa color, presence of halitosis, presence and location of dental calculus, gingival inflammation, assessed by the presence of redness and swelling, evident gingival recession, spontaneous gingival bleeding, furcation exposure; oronasal fistula, skin fistulas, pus and tooth loss.
Each of these parameters was described in detail. After the consultation, clinical examination and completion of the case, additional tests, treatments and final diagnosis of each patient were obtained from the hospital's routine medical records. Data of all patients were summarized in a single base spreadsheet for analysis: pet name, medical record number, species, breed, age, weight, feed, main complaint, consent of the owner as to PD, PD control measures, degree of PD, and final diagnosis.
The prevalence of PD was calculated by dividing the total number of positive cases numerator by the total number of patients examined denominator and then multiplying by For other data, descriptive statistics were used. A total of animals were examined from March 10th, to November 30th, General distribution of PD. Of the animals, 39 did not have the disease or had only gingivitis, had mild PD, 94 moderate and 48 had severe PD Figure 1.
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Thus, the prevalence of PD was However, in these studies, dog clinical examination was performed under general anesthesia, which is ideal to assess the accurate degree of PD, particularly with regard to the evaluation of the degree of furcation exposure and the occurrence of oronasal fistula. In this study, clinical examination was conducted with the animals on stationary position, with no sedative effect. Thus, these two parameters may have been underestimated, since they require probing the gingival sulcus, and this procedure may only be performed with animals under general anesthesia Harvey, ; Marreta, However, as an advantage, we have a more diverse population than those of the previous studies, animals that were not always taken to the veterinarian for specific problems in their oral cavity.
The main complaints, or the reasons why the owners took their dogs to the HVT, differed quite a lot, they included trauma with wounds and orthopedic injuries, different systemic diseases that were infectious or not, and localized conditions, such as skin lesions and ophthalmic conditions. Of these, only 2. That being said, it is alarming that Gum disease is still a stage where treatment can fully recover the supporting tissues of the teeth, therefore, it is said to be "reversible.
Figure 1 shows that However, Further, the level of dog owner awareness regarding the existence of PD in dogs was examined, and it was found that Of these, only Since Even when several studies have shown that the consequences of PD are severe and bring great harm to animal health, including diseases of the oral cavity as damage to oral health, such as loss of teeth and the occurrence of oronasal fisture and pathological fractures of the mandible DeBowe et al.
The relevance of PD also adresses systemic influences, widely studied in humans, which are related or may aggravate several health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight, pancreatic and kidney cancer and different types of diseases where infection originates from PD microorganisms; for instance, arthritis, pneumonia, encephalitis and glomerulonephritis Antunes et al.
Breed distribution. The main dog breeds addressed in this study are shown in Figure 2.
It can be noted that, generally, most of them were small breed animals poodle, teckel, pinscher, Brazilian terrier and Yorkshire terrier , totaling It was not possible to establish predisposing breeds to PD, since the number of animals in the study for such analysis was insufficient. However, the prospective study was chosen to eliminate errors of variations in the classification of PD, lack of standardization of nomenclature and failures when completing forms, as mentioned by Venturini Weight Distribution.
The weight of the dogs tested varied significantly as shown in Table 2 , by mean and standard deviation of In canines, size and consequently weight differ significantly because of the large number of different breeds, categorized from small to giant, and PD affects all of them Harvey, ; Milken et al.
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There is still considerable variation in the weight of the animals within a breed, mainly due to obesity, increasingly more common in small breeds Venturini, Dog feeding ranged from chow diet Similarly to the distribution of breeds, it was not possible to establish a correlation between the type of food animals ate and the occurrence or severity of PD, since the number of animals in the study for such analysis was insufficient.
It is noteworthy that this result may be influenced by the wide variation in type and frequency with which the animals were given complementary food. These authors emphasized the possibility that the mechanical action of solid chow may help remove dental plaque, and thus aid to lower the frequency of PD in animals fed that way, due to the lower occurrence of PD.
Age associated with degree of PD. A tendency to increased degree of PD was associated with increasing animal age when analyzing both the median Figure 3 and mean and standard deviation Figure 4. The patient is induced under general anesthesia. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, heart rate and temperature are continuously monitored by an animal health technician. An animal health technician will perform a dental scaling and ultrasonic cleaning of the teeth.
The veterinarian then performs a dental exam, charting any gingival pockets, inflammation and recession. Any concerning areas are then xrayed. If there is significant boney loss, or a tooth root abscess, the tooth is removed.
These pets went home with a few less teeth, but they were much happier and owners even noticed a "spunkier" attitude! These x-rays show boney loss associated with chronic periodontitis.
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This x-ray shows tooth root abscesses at the base of both roots of this molar tooth. This is an xray of feline resorptive lesions. The fuzzy margins of bone around the tooth show that the root is slowly being "resorbed" into the jaw. A carie can be seen on the crown of the tooth. Notice the remains of a tooth root on the left side of the image.