The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism

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To attach a tag simply click on the tags button at the bottom of any page. The rise and fall and rise of the postwar American city has been widely documented. Sunbelt examples like Charlotte, Atlanta, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Phoenix emerged as significant counterpoints to these older Eastern counterparts. According to Hackworth and others, Keynesian economics failed to view markets as triumphantly as their neoliberal antecedents.

Increasingly cities took on non-referendum approved debt through revenue bonds.

Post-Political Cities

In recent years, these bonds have outnumbered general obligation bonds, which in contrast require approval of local voters. As cities have received fewer federal dollars, dependence on municipal lending increased. However, lending in the neoliberal era fails to resemble that of the past. Changing demographics and the ascendency of wealth generation through finance capital, pension funds, money market funds, and insurance firms account for larger segments of the securities industry.

Like other historians and urbanists, Hackworth identifies the s as the key decade in which financial shifts wrought widespread urban change. What results is a mix of greater local responsibility in terms of governance and services, but within a regulatory model that allows fewer options. Similarly, the Low Income Housing Tax Credit enabled investors to create revenue streams through the syndication of tax credits from the construction of mixed unit public housing.

Like other critics of neoliberalism, perhaps most notably David Harvey, Hackworth is careful to point out that its effects are uneven. By contrast, local real estate developers have been given another set of opportunities, as regulations and other factors, discouraging their presence are no longer as acute as they once were.

The prevalence of public-private partnerships imposed a dominant role on municipal governments, one in which city governance must facilitate the market rather than solve effects of market defects or failures.

Jason Hackworth

The role of exclusion plays a key role here. The increasing dependence on real estate investment has accelerated the unevenness of neoliberal development. In this way, while suburbanization continues, the inner core receives new economic and political attention while inner ring suburbs receive less.

But the chronic lack of public resources devoted to its management and maintenance quickly degraded the living conditions and image of this housing stock, eventually justifying its dismantling. By , as the final operations were coming to an end, nearly , of these homes had been demolished, with only half of this stock being replenished.

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Renovation projects should aim at a diversity standard combining three categories of housing: public housing; housing financed by a scheme called the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, intended for modest households, but not for the poorest; and rental housing or market-rate units. Beyond the physical mutation of public housing, the objective was to break social dynamics that the Clinton administration was trying to describe as harmful. This reform, which was introduced with the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of , was intended to complement the welfare reform adopted two years earlier.

Cisneros paid great attention to the local initiatives and proposals of a private developer McCormack Baron Salazar specialized in the production of mixed neighborhoods. Urban renewal has thus served as a laboratory for a transformation of public housing, whose operating methods partial privatization and underlying ideology work and responsibility ethics seem to support the thesis of a neoliberal framework for federal policy. But the local application of the new paradigm reveals much less homogeneous trends.

The purest model of the neoliberalization of urban policies is probably to be found in global cities, or at least attractive for international capital, such as Chicago, Atlanta or Washington, DC. While, in its most rudimentary sense, the neoliberalization of public policies aims to extend market principles, this is not obvious or at least not homogeneous in the local implementation of this program.

As urban neoliberalization theorists themselves argue Brenner and Theodore , historical legacies and local institutional configurations shape urban projects in different ways. Choice Neighborhoods is the result of a long phase of consultation undertaken by the new presidential team with multiple stakeholders. The first consisted of a nebulous group of national and local actors federal civil servants, urban experts, mayors, local social housing agencies, private and non-profit promoters, architects, etc.

The other coalition, composed of a few parliamentarians in Congress, social housing associations and tenants, lawyers and some of the researchers, saw it as a machine to drive out poor minorities, like the policy of sinister urban renewal. The other major change concerns rehousing. This is based on two central assumptions: the treatment of a set of interconnected problems requires the coordination of physical-urban and socioeconomic interventions; and this synergy produces an impact greater than the sum of these interventions.

Far from a perspective of equal distribution of resources, Choice Neighborhoods has deliberately targeted neighborhoods with significant redevelopment potential. While the objective of deconcentration of poverty has been maintained, Choice Neighborhoods does not aim to disperse the inhabitants, but to give them the choice to stay or leave. Choice, the preferred theme of neoliberal rhetoric, has found application in housing policies Cowan and Marsh My surveys of two Choice Neighborhoods projects in Dorchester in Boston and Woodlawn in Chicago show how local trade-offs have been made between coalitions that focus on the external attractiveness of neighborhoods and others that focus on their internal attractiveness i. HACKWORTH - Politics, Philosophy & Social Sciences: Books

This allows the stabilization of the original inhabitants, who can benefit from the improvements of the neighborhood in the logic of community development, without however compromising the objective of attracting new populations in the long term, if market conditions allow it. Flowing text. Best For.

Web, Tablet, Phone, eReader. Content Protection. Read Aloud. Learn More. Flag as inappropriate. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders. More related to urban planning. See more. Images of the American City. Anselm L. The conversion of an agricultural nation into an overwhelmingly urbanized continent was accompanied by Americans' attempts to make sense of what was happening.

Within these pages, Anselm L. Strauss depicts the vast and varied color of American urban development and the imagery associated with it. Melissa Keeley.

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Cities are stepping forward to address the critical sustainability challenges of the 21st century. Meeting the demands of complex issues requires municipalities to evaluate problems and their solutions in more holistic, integrated, and collaborative ways. Drawn from plans and progress reports from more than fifty US cities, this book examines how urban leaders conceptualize sustainability, plan effective strategies, and take action. Chapters examine various topical themes including equity, the green economy, climate change, energy, transportation, water, green space, and waste.

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Throughout the text, the authors highlight best practices in innovative solutions, recognizing the multiple benefits of sustainability projects, environmental justice, governance, education and communication. Barry M. This book addresses the increasing regionalisation of urban governance and politics in an era of industrialisation, suburbanisation and welfare extension.

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It provides an important reassessment of the role, structure and activities of urban elites, highlighting their vitality and their interdependence and demonstrating the increasing regionalisation of municipal politics as towns sought to promote themselves, extend services and even expand physically onto a regional level.

Moreover, it explores the discourses surrounding space in which gender, class, morality and community all feature prominently. How urban space and its uses were defined and redefined became key political weapons across the regions of England in the nineteenth century and these chapters show how a range of sources maps, poems, songs, paintings, illustrated journalism, social investigations, historical texts were employed by contemporaries to shape the urban and its image, often by placing it in a regional context or contributing to the creation of a regional image and identity.

This collection illustrates the continuing vitality of the study of urban politics and governance and presents a rare attempt to place English urban history in a regional context. Australian Urban Planning: New challenges, new agendas. Brendan Gleeson.

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  4. The authors combine a skilful mix of theory and applied analysis to reveal the complex dynamics of this exciting field. I can think of no better text on cities, governance and the role of the planner'. Associate Professor Mark Considine, University of Melbourne, co-author of Australian Politics in the Global Era 'A useful book because it makes clear connections between politics and policy in general and the roles of planners. It raises serious questions on how the move to market economies conflicts with the older idea of intervention via planning and challenges the reader to rethink planning in newer contexts.

    The book is an excellent introduction to both urban planning theories and their relationship to wider political cultures.